The Elementary Charts are part of the Montessori Prepared Environment for children aged 6 to 12.

The charts are aids to the imagination. They are presented to children with a story and help the children to visualise what is discussed in the story.

The charts are impressionistic, giving an impression, rather than being an exact reproduction of the factual information. The charts are not meant to be used as a teaching material.  

Some of the charts are fanciful in appearance, as the more striking the image, the more striking the impression for the child’s memory.

Some other charts are more factual. But even with the more factual charts, they are usually simplified and are only meant to be a starting point for the children's own research, exploration and discovery. 

On some of the geography charts, what is shown may not be accurate for the area where you live, but they allow you to give a general idea to children. These charts should lead children to carefully selected books, where they will find the latest information. 

Another group of charts is known as the work charts. These charts allow the children to have manipulative activity around some particular idea.

Botany

Number: 
B01
Number Historic: 
A
Series: 
Botany
Plants need sunlight, warmth and water. They also need many minerals to help them grow and stay healthy. This chart is shown to the children following an experiment that explores what happens to plants when they lack certain minerals.
Number: 
B02
Number Historic: 
B
Series: 
Botany
The main function of leaves is to allow plants to meet their need for food (through photosynthesis). Inside each and every leaf, we could imagine that there is a busy food factory at work. Water is carried into the leaf, with each drop containing two parts hydrogen and one part oxygen. The hydrogen and oxygen are then sorted and separated from one another. The oxygen is thrown out into the atmosphere because the leaf does not need it. The hydrogen is then mixed in with carbon dioxide from the air. The sun cooks up the mixture of carbon dioxide and hydrogen and then the food is dispersed throughout the leaf.
Number: 
B03
Number Historic: 
C
Series: 
Botany
This chart emphasises the fact that leaves could not produce food without the sun for photosynthesis. The leaves praise the sun for its help so it is like the leaves are a temple to the sun.
Number: 
B04
Number Historic: 
D
Series: 
Botany
This impressionistic chart supports a demonstration which shows how leaves release water through their stomata and this water is evaporated into the air. Evaporation occurs through the heat of the sun; it is like the sun is taking a drink from the leaves of a plant.
Number: 
B05
Number Historic: 
E
Series: 
Botany
This chart shows that the main function of the root is to go in search of water. The roots allow a plant to absorb (or drink) the water from the soil. Roots have a special sensitivity for water so therefore grow in the direction of the water they are searching for.
Number: 
B06
Number Historic: 
F
Series: 
Botany
This chart supports a demonstration that shows how roots are able to move around or through obstacles in their search for water. If an obstacle is too large and the root cannot move around it, the root can attempt to break down the obstacle. It does this by secreting a tiny bit of acid which can dissolve the obstacle.
Number: 
B07
Number Historic: 
G
Series: 
Botany
The leaves and the root collaborate together to do their work. The leaves are able to direct water right down to the root where the root hairs are. Then the water is absorbed into the root and given to the plant to meet its needs.
Number: 
B08
Number Historic: 
H
Series: 
Botany
By examining these charts we can see the different ways that leaves direct the water to the roots. The leaves do this in various ways depending on the position of the roots under the ground.
Number: 
B09
Number Historic: 
I
Series: 
Botany
By examining these charts we can see the different ways that leaves direct the water to the roots. The leaves do this in various ways depending on the position of the roots under the ground.
Number: 
B10
Number Historic: 
J
Series: 
Botany
By examining these charts we can see the different ways that leaves direct the water to the roots. The leaves do this in various ways depending on the position of the roots under the ground.
Number: 
B11A
Number Historic: 
K
Series: 
Botany
This chart gives an impression of how a network of roots are secured tightly to the ground and help to support the huge plants growing above the ground.
Number: 
B11B
Number Historic: 
K
Series: 
Botany
This chart gives an impression of how a network of roots are secured tightly to the ground and help to support the huge plants growing above the ground.
Number: 
B12A
Number Historic: 
L
Series: 
Botany
This chart supports a demonstration, which shows how networks of roots under the ground also do the job of holding onto the soil. This helps to prevent erosion of the land during strong rains and winds.
Number: 
B12B
Number Historic: 
L
Series: 
Botany
This chart supports a demonstration, which shows how networks of roots under the ground also do the job of holding onto the soil. This helps to prevent erosion of the land during strong rains and winds.
Number: 
B13A
Number Historic: 
M
Series: 
Botany
The main function of the stem is to transport water from the roots up into the leaves. The stems act as a water pump, pulling up water into the leaves.
Number: 
B13B
Number Historic: 
M
Series: 
Botany
The main function of the stem is to transport water from the roots up into the leaves. The stems act as a water pump, pulling up water into the leaves.
Number: 
B14
Number Historic: 
N
Series: 
Botany
This chart provides an image of the tendrils of a climbing stem. The curl of the tendrils enables the stem to climb.
Number: 
B15
Number Historic: 
O
Series: 
Botany
As light is so important for the plant, the stems grow towards the light. In plants where the stems are not woody, they devise all kinds of ways to climb on other plants such as twining stems and hook climbers.
Number: 
B16
Number Historic: 
P
Series: 
Botany
This chart aids the classification of flowers. Flowers can be classified as hypogenous, perigynous or epigynous depending on the position of their parts in relation to the flower’s ovaries.
Number: 
B17A
Number Historic: 
Q
Series: 
Botany
This chart emphasises the idea that different kinds of seeds will produce different kinds of plants. A monocotyledon seed will produce a plant called a ‘monocot’, which has particular roots, leaves and numbers of flower parts. The monocots stay true to their tribe just as the mother in this picture is asking the child to stay true to his tradition.
Number: 
B17B
Number Historic: 
Q
Series: 
Botany
This chart emphasises the idea that different kinds of seeds will produce different kinds of plants. A dicotyledon seed will produce a plant called a ‘dicot’, which has particular roots, leaves and numbers of flower parts. The dicots stay true to their tribe just as the mother in this picture is asking the child to stay true to his tradition.
Number: 
B18A
Number Historic: 
R
Series: 
Botany
This chart represents the many different ways that seeds can be dispersed to allow for the fertilisation, and therefore, reproduction of the plant.
Number: 
B18B
Number Historic: 
R
Series: 
Botany
This chart represents the many different ways that seeds can be dispersed to allow for the fertilisation, and therefore, reproduction of the plant.
Number: 
B19
Number Historic: 
T
Series: 
Botany
This chart introduces the different parts and functions of human anatomy and physiology, progressing from a general to a detailed study of each system, and instilling a sense of wonder and admiration.
Number: 
B20
Number Historic: 
S
Series: 
Botany
After the children have explored many areas of Botany, Geography and History, this chart is introduced to give a synthesis of the connections between these areas. This chart explores the many living and non-living components of the world and their interconnectedness.
Number: 
B21
Number Historic: 
3
Series: 
Botany
This chart illustrates the nitrogen cycle and shows how nitrogen is converted into various forms as it circulates between plants, animals, bacteria, air and soil. The conversion of nitrogen can be carried out through both biological and physical processes. It highlights the transformation that takes place when something dies and is transformed so that whatever is useful is available again for life.
Number: 
B22
Number Historic: 
22
Series: 
Botany
The life cycle of ferns is different from flowering plants, where the adult plant grows from the seed. The life cycle of the fern has two different stages; sporophyte, which releases spores, and gametophyte, which releases gametes. This type of life cycle is called alternation of generations.
Number: 
B23
Number Historic: 
14
Series: 
Botany
This chart gives the impression of how the plant holds water at different levels. Human beings also do this work, shaping the land in tiers, for growing and cultivating food.
Number: 
B24
Number Historic: 
16
Series: 
Botany
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the male part of the flower, stamen, to the female part, pistil. A flower doesn’t fertilise itself because the pistil is higher than the stamen. Insects work to help flowering plants. Flowering plants have their corollas with bright full colours or a strong perfume to attract the insects. When a bee collects nectar and pollen from the flower of a plant, some pollen from the stamens sticks to the hairs of the bee’s body. The bee continues to go from flower to flower unconsciously it is carrying pollen to another flower where the pistil picks off the pollen from the bee's back. Once the pistil picks up this pollen, it sticks there, then the pollen grains are sent downwards in a tube, and they reach the ovary. The male cells reach the ovule and fertilisation takes place.

Geography A

Number: 
GA01
Number Historic: 
1A
Series: 
Geography A
The chart is meant as an aid to the imagination to visualise the relative size of the Sun and the Earth. The exaggerated size of the flames helps give this impression. The estimate is that the sun is 1 million times larger than the earth.
Number: 
GA02A
Number Historic: 
2A
Series: 
Geography A
This chart depicts all the planets of the solar system and their orbit around the sun.
Number: 
GA02B
Number Historic: 
2A
Series: 
Geography A
This chart depicts all the planets of the solar system and their orbit around the sun.
Number: 
GA02C
Number Historic: 
2A
Series: 
Geography A
This chart depicts all the planets of the solar system and their orbit around the sun.
Number: 
GA02D
Number Historic: 
2A
Series: 
Geography A
This chart depicts all the planets of the solar system and their orbit around the sun.
Number: 
GA03A
Number Historic: 
3A
Series: 
Geography A
The impression is given that hot things ascend and cold things descend. Angels or winged figures are used to help give that impression because they are clearly either ascending or descending. Colour is used to show that the ascending angels are transporting hot materials and the descending angels are transporting cold materials.
Number: 
GA03B
Number Historic: 
3A
Series: 
Geography A
The impression is given that hot things ascend and cold things descend. Angels or winged figures are used to help give that impression because they are clearly either ascending or descending. Colour is used to show that the ascending angels are transporting hot materials and the descending angels are transporting cold materials.
Number: 
GA04
Number Historic: 
4A
Series: 
Geography A
Gradually after about 900 million years the surface of the earth solidified sufficiently to form a thin crust but the hot masses within broke through creating enormous volcanic activity. During this period, although much cooler than before, the earth was still so hot that no liquid water could remain on its surface so that all the water that is now in the oceans formed a thick mass of clouds which hid the earth from the sun.
Number: 
GA05
Number Historic: 
5A
Series: 
Geography A
After millions of years the surface of the earth cooled sufficiently to allow the water that fell to remain upon it. Then all the water of the clouds fell, quickening the cooling process and finally settled in the hollows formed in the crust. Many of the volcanoes became dormant so the clouds thinned and the sun shone on the Earth.
Number: 
GA06
Number Historic: 
6A
Series: 
Geography A
While cooling, the substances which form the earth settled according to weight. As a result, they arranged themselves as follows: the heavier mass, the Barysphere at the centre; the layer of rocks, the Lithosphere on top; the oceans, the Hydrosphere within the hollows, the air, the Atmosphere surrounding this.
Number: 
GA07
Number Historic: 
7A
Series: 
Geography A
In some parts of the earth it is very, very hot. Some people there feel as if all the heat of the sun was concentrated upon the earth. But in reality, as the sun radiates out heat from the whole surface, only a very small part of the heat is received by the earth.
Number: 
GA08
Number Historic: 
8A
Series: 
Geography A
The earth has two movements, one around itself and one around the sun, if the earth did not revolve around itself and always presented the same face to the sun, this would become very hot, while the opposite side would become frozen.
Number: 
GA09
Number Historic: 
9A
Series: 
Geography A
At every moment of the day there is one part of the earth that just comes into the light of the sun. At that place, it is sunrise. At the same moment, on the opposite side, some other part goes from light into the darkness. It is then sunset. On the part where the light falls it is day, on the other side it is night.
Number: 
GA10
Number Historic: 
10A
Series: 
Geography A
The earth takes 24 hours to make a complete circle around itself. When the length of the day is equal to the length of the night, the day will last twelve hours and so will the night. The part of the earth which will be perpendicularly under the sun will have reached the middle of the day, 12 o'clock, or noon. The part which is just coming into the light of day will be at the moment of dawn; and there it will be 6 a.m. The part which will be just entering into the night will be at sunset and there it will be 6 p.m. At any place the coldest part of the day is at dawn because that part will have been 12 hours without the heat of the sun. As it climbs towards noon it will receive more and more heat. The hottest part of the day is not at 12 o'clock but around 2 o’clock in the afternoon because the earth, besides having stored the heat received in the 6 hours will still receive the rays of the sun more or less perpendicularly between 12 and 2 p.m. As it travels towards sunset the sun-rays will fall upon it more and more obliquely and therefore it will become cooler and cooler.
Number: 
GA11
Number Historic: 
11A
Series: 
Geography A
When the sun-rays fall perpendicularly the heat is concentrated on one small portion of the earth, consequently it is much warmer here than where the same amount of heat is spread out over a larger surface.
Number: 
GA12
Number Historic: 
12A
Series: 
Geography A
This gives a general idea that the concentration of the Sun's rays that strikes the surface of the Earth depends upon the 'obliqueness' of the rays. The illustration shows a 2 to 1 relationship, however, this will vary according to the degree of the curvature of the Earth, which will determine the degree of obliqueness of the rays. The same base distance is indicated in both pictures, in one of them the rays fall perpendicularly, in the other obliquely. The first receives 14 rays; the second 7. It is easy to understand that the first receives double the amount of heat.
Number: 
GA14
Number Historic: 
14A
Series: 
Geography A
The amount of atmosphere through which the perpendicularly rays have to pass so as to reach the surface of the earth is much shorter than the amount that has to be traversed by the oblique rays that reach the polar zones. As the atmosphere absorbs a certain amount of the sun's heat, the oblique rays loose more heat than the perpendicular ones. That is another reason why it is hotter in those parts of the earth where the rays fall perpendicularly than in the others where they fall obliquely.
Number: 
GA15A
Number Historic: 
15A
Series: 
Geography A
The axis of rotation of the earth is not perpendicular to the rays of the sun but forms an angle with it. This angle is called the angle of inclination of the earth's axis. The second movement of the earth is around the sun. The axis of the earth while going around the sun is always inclined in the same direction. The path of the earth around the sun is called its orbit. It takes the earth one year to go around it's orbit. At two points throughout the year, the tilt of the earth’s axis reaches its maximum angle compared to the sun. These days are known as solstices. On these solstices, the rays of the Sun shine directly on one of the two tropics. As the earth moves around its orbit, it reaches two points during the year where the tilt of its axis causes it to be straight relative to the sun. These days are known as equinoxes. During these equinoxes the rays of the sun shine directly on the equator.
Number: 
GA15B
Number Historic: 
15A
Series: 
Geography A
The axis of rotation of the earth is not perpendicular to the rays of the sun but forms an angle with it. This angle is called the angle of inclination of the earth's axis. The second movement of the earth is around the sun. The axis of the earth while going around the sun is always inclined in the same direction. The path of the earth around the sun is called its orbit. It takes the earth one year to go around it's orbit. At two points throughout the year, the tilt of the earth’s axis reaches its maximum angle compared to the sun. These days are known as solstices. On these solstices, the rays of the Sun shine directly on one of the two tropics. As the earth moves around its orbit, it reaches two points during the year where the tilt of its axis causes it to be straight relative to the sun. These days are known as equinoxes. During these equinoxes the rays of the sun shine directly on the equator.
Number: 
GA15C
Number Historic: 
15A
Series: 
Geography A
The axis of rotation of the earth is not perpendicular to the rays of the sun but forms an angle with it. This angle is called the angle of inclination of the earth's axis. The second movement of the earth is around the sun. The axis of the earth while going around the sun is always inclined in the same direction. The path of the earth around the sun is called its orbit. It takes the earth one year to go around it's orbit. At two points throughout the year, the tilt of the earth’s axis reaches its maximum angle compared to the sun. These days are known as solstices. On these solstices, the rays of the Sun shine directly on one of the two tropics. As the earth moves around its orbit, it reaches two points during the year where the tilt of its axis causes it to be straight relative to the sun. These days are known as equinoxes. During these equinoxes the rays of the sun shine directly on the equator.
Number: 
GA15D
Number Historic: 
15A
Series: 
Geography A
The axis of rotation of the earth is not perpendicular to the rays of the sun but forms an angle with it. This angle is called the angle of inclination of the earth's axis. The second movement of the earth is around the sun. The axis of the earth while going around the sun is always inclined in the same direction. The path of the earth around the sun is called its orbit. It takes the earth one year to go around it's orbit. At two points throughout the year, the tilt of the earth’s axis reaches its maximum angle compared to the sun. These days are known as solstices. On these solstices, the rays of the Sun shine directly on one of the two tropics. As the earth moves around its orbit, it reaches two points during the year where the tilt of its axis causes it to be straight relative to the sun. These days are known as equinoxes. During these equinoxes the rays of the sun shine directly on the equator.
Number: 
GA16A
Number Historic: 
16A
Series: 
Geography A
The left half of the chart shows the perpendicular rays of the sun falling on the Tropic of Cancer. In this position the northern hemisphere is beginning its summer. The right half of the chart shows the perpendicular rays of the sun falling on the Tropic of Capricorn. In this position the northern hemisphere is beginning its winter.
Number: 
GA16B
Number Historic: 
16A
Series: 
Geography A
The left half of the chart shows the perpendicular rays of the sun falling on the Tropic of Capricorn. In this position the southern hemisphere is beginning its summer. The right half of the chart shows the perpendicular rays of the sun falling on the Tropic of Cancer. In this position the southern hemisphere is beginning its winter.
Number: 
GA16C
Number Historic: 
16A
Series: 
Geography A
The left half of the chart shows the perpendicular rays of the sun falling on the Tropic of Capricorn. In this position the southern hemisphere is beginning its summer. The right half of the chart shows the perpendicular rays of the sun falling on the Tropic of Cancer. In this position the southern hemisphere is beginning its winter.
Number: 
GA17
Number Historic: 
17A
Series: 
Geography A
This map of the world along with a small movable sun is a working chart for the sequence of the solstice, equinox, solstice, equinox cycle that occurs every year.
Number: 
GA18
Number Historic: 
18A
Series: 
Geography A
The colours on this chart give an impression of the relative temperatures on the Earth. The lines on the Earth that are the boundaries of those temperature zones are named along with the degrees. The temperature zones are defined by the tropics and the Arctic and Antarctic circle.
Number: 
GA19
Number Historic: 
19A
Series: 
Geography A
Heat from the sun that goes through the layers of the atmosphere warms the surface of the earth. The layers of the atmosphere become more dense the closer they are to the surface of the earth. The density of the atmosphere is shown by the little circles and the sun’s rays are shown by the arrows. The red portion represents the earth at sea level, the brown a mountain. The lines represents the different layers of the atmosphere. The crowding of the lines near the sea level is to show that the layers there are very dense, where as up, towards the top of the mountain, they become less and less dense. The arrows represent the sun's rays which, passing through atmosphere, warm the earth.
Number: 
GA20
Number Historic: 
20A
Series: 
Geography A
Some of the heat from the sun that has warmed the earth radiates back into the atmosphere where it is trapped for a while by the density of the layers of the atmosphere. The earth does not keep all the heat it receives, it radiates some of it back into space, but part of the radiated heat is kept by the very dense layers of air at sea level. This becomes consequently very warm. The red arrows in this chart are to show the longer and weaker heat waves radiated by the earth. They find it more difficult to pass through the dense layer of air than did the shorter waves shown in the previous chart which came directly from the sun. The heat which cannot radiate back into space is retained by the air. Consequently the atmosphere is heated more by the heat radiated by the earth than by the heat radiated directly by the sun.
Number: 
GA21
Number Historic: 
21A
Series: 
Geography A
At sea level heat radiates up from the warmth of the ground and the thick layers of atmosphere help to keep the heat from escaping. It is as if a boy was laying on a bed with lots of blankets on top and with a heat source under the bed, the heat of the body would then be impeded from going off and, in spite of the cold outside, the boy would feel warmer and warner. So it is with the earth. The surface of the earth is heated by the sun, but the earth is immersed in the very cold interplanetary spaces. The ‘heat’ below represents the heated rocks at sea level and the blankets the many thick layers of the atmosphere which retain the heat upon it, in spite of the interstellar cold. The boy remains warm.
Number: 
GA22
Number Historic: 
22A
Series: 
Geography A
At high elevations the atmosphere is very thin. Any heat absorbed by the ground is quickly lost at night because the atmosphere cannot hold it. On top of the mountain for instance, although one is nearer the sun, the heat of the rocks is radiated off into space because the blankets of air are few and very very thin. The boy laying on the bed with very few blankets becomes blue with cold.
Number: 
GA23
Number Historic: 
23A
Series: 
Geography A
Orographic rain. The higher the air holding the moisture ascends and the cooler the temperature of the air becomes, the less moisture the atmosphere is able to hold. It drops the moisture as rain on the side of the mountain. The air that goes over the mountain to the other side is now very dry.
Number: 
GA24A
Number Historic: 
24A
Series: 
Geography A
The different pictures represent a hemisphere of the earth. At one foot of the curve there is an Inuit to represent the North Pole and at the other a penguin to represent the South Pole. At the top, in the middle of the curve, the brown part represents a portion of Equatorial Africa. Diagram 1 shows the warm air rising over the equatorial coast of Africa causing a depression. The other pictures show that from the two sides colder air flows into the depression to take the place of the air that has gone up. The air that has blown in, on becoming heated, also goes up, and so it continues: air coming from the sides and going up. An updraft of air is created, which reaching a certain level and becoming colder, no longer rises but travels side ways towards the poles. Thus two superficial currents are created over the surface going from the poles to the equator and two upper currents going from the equator to the poles. The chart shows what logically should happen but the reality is another, as shown in chart 26a.
Number: 
GA24B
Number Historic: 
24A
Series: 
Geography A
The different pictures represent a hemisphere of the earth. At one foot of the curve there is an Inuit to represent the North Pole and at the other a penguin to represent the South Pole. At the top, in the middle of the curve, the brown part represents a portion of Equatorial Africa. Diagram 1 shows the warm air rising over the equatorial coast of Africa causing a depression. The other pictures show that from the two sides colder air flows into the depression to take the place of the air that has gone up. The air that has blown in, on becoming heated, also goes up, and so it continues: air coming from the sides and going up. An updraft of air is created, which reaching a certain level and becoming colder, no longer rises but travels side ways towards the poles. Thus two superficial currents are created over the surface going from the poles to the equator and two upper currents going from the equator to the poles. The chart shows what logically should happen but the reality is another, as shown in chart 26a.
Number: 
GA25A
Number Historic: 
25A
Series: 
Geography A
The next chart expands the idea of the circulation of the air by showing how it happens over all parts of the Earth. Warm air rises from the Tropics, circles around in the atmosphere towards the poles, cools off so it becomes heavier and descends closer to the surface of the Earth, rushes in to take the place of the hot air that rises from the tropics.
Number: 
GA25B
Number Historic: 
25A
Series: 
Geography A
The next chart expands the idea of the circulation of the air by showing how it happens over all parts of the Earth. Warm air rises from the Tropics, circles around in the atmosphere towards the poles, cools off so it becomes heavier and descends closer to the surface of the Earth, rushes in to take the place of the hot air that rises from the tropics, etc.
Number: 
GA26A
Number Historic: 
26A
Series: 
Geography A
This chart gives further detail to the way the winds move across the surface of the earth. The interplay of low and high pressure creates the belts of steady winds over the earth. There are four zones of high pressure, two over the poles, and two over the tropics; and three of low pressure: at the equator and at the Arctic and the Antarctic Circles.
Number: 
GA26B
Number Historic: 
26A
Series: 
Geography A
This chart gives further detail to the way the winds move across the surface of the earth. The interplay of low and high pressure creates the belts of steady winds over the earth. There are four zones of high pressure, two over the poles, and two over the tropics; and three of low pressure: at the equator and at the Arctic and the Antarctic Circles.
Number: 
GA27
Number Historic: 
27A
Series: 
Geography A
If one applies to the same amount of heat to rocks and to water, the former radiate off much heat than the latter. So during the day on the sea coast, the land is warmer than the water, so the air above the land rises and the cooler air over the water rushes in over the land to take the place of the warm air that has risen. In other words, there is an updraught over the land and the cooler air of the sea comes to take its place, creating a sea breeze.
Number: 
GA28
Number Historic: 
28A
Series: 
Geography A
Rocks, due to their greater radiation, lose their heat more quickly than water. When night comes the land soon becomes cold whereas the water retains its heat much longer. As a result of this, the air over the land becomes much colder than the air over the water, causing high pressure over the land and low pressure over the water. Consequently, the cold air flows from the land to take the place of the warmer air that has risen over the water thus creating a land breeze.

Geography B

Number: 
G01
Number Historic: 
1
Series: 
Geography B
June 21: The Sun is on the Tropic of Cancer. That is the Summer Solstice for the Northern Hemisphere and the Winter Solstice for the Southern Hemisphere. This is the beginning of summer in the Northern Hemisphere and the beginning of winter in the Southern Hemisphere.
Number: 
G02
Number Historic: 
2
Series: 
Geography B
December 21: The Sun is on the Tropic of Capricorn. That is the Winter Solstice for the Northern Hemisphere and the Summer Solstice for the Southern Hemisphere. This is the beginning of winter in the Northern Hemisphere and the beginning of summer in the Southern Hemisphere.
Number: 
G03
Number Historic: 
3
Series: 
Geography B
The Sun is on the Equator, which is the position for both the March and the September Equinox. The Trade Winds blow from the tropics towards the Equator.
Number: 
G04A
Number Historic: 
4
Series: 
Geography B
This map concerns wind direction and rainfall at the beginning of the Northern summers and the Southern winters.
Number: 
G04B
Number Historic: 
4
Series: 
Geography B
This map concerns wind direction and rainfall at the beginning of the Northern summers and the Southern winters.
Number: 
G05A
Number Historic: 
5
Series: 
Geography B
This map concerns wind direction and rainfall at the beginning of the Northern summers and the Southern winters.
Number: 
G05B
Number Historic: 
5
Series: 
Geography B
This map concerns wind direction and rainfall at the beginning of the Northern summers and the Southern winters.
Number: 
G06A
Number Historic: 
6
Series: 
Geography B
This chart explores rain cause by local conditions. Warm air travels across the ocean to the land. When it has to rise over cliffs, it cools and releases its moisture as rain.
Number: 
G06B
Number Historic: 
6
Series: 
Geography B
This chart explores rain cause by local conditions. Warm air travels across the ocean to the land. When it has to rise over cliffs, it cools and releases its moisture as rain.
Number: 
G07
Number Historic: 
7
Series: 
Geography B
This chart explores rain cause by local conditions. In hot places within the world, the water from the ocean is evaporated all throughout the day.
Number: 
G08
Number Historic: 
8
Series: 
Geography B
When the air travels across to the land, it cools and releases the moisture as rain. This is called tropical rain or equatorial rain.
Number: 
G09
Number Historic: 
9
Series: 
Geography B
This chart supports a series of demonstrations, which explore the relationships between warm and cool currents on earth. The warm and cool currents can also affect the temperature of the surrounding region.
Number: 
G10
Number Historic: 
10
Series: 
Geography B
Prior to viewing this chart, the children observe an experiment demonstrating how warm currents flow above cool currents (as heat rises and cool substances sink). This chart shows the names and positions of the warm and cool currents that flow through our oceans.
Number: 
G11A
Number Historic: 
11
Series: 
Geography B
This chart gives an impression of erosion by wind. The wind carries small particles of rocks and sand that wear away at rocks. The wind blows hard onto the rocks, breaking off pieces and causing it to change shape over time.
Number: 
G11B
Number Historic: 
11
Series: 
Geography B
This chart gives an impression of erosion by wind. The wind carries small particles of rocks and sand that wear away at rocks. The wind blows hard onto the rocks, breaking off pieces and causing it to change shape over time.
Number: 
G11C
Number Historic: 
11
Series: 
Geography B
This chart gives an impression of erosion by wind. The wind carries small particles of rocks and sand that wear away at rocks. The wind blows hard onto the rocks, breaking off pieces and causing it to change shape over time.
Number: 
G12
Number Historic: 
12
Series: 
Geography B
This chart allows the children to follow the path of the world’s major rivers and explore how the rivers flow from highlands, to lowlands and into a large body of water.
Number: 
G13A
Number Historic: 
13
Series: 
Geography B
This chart shows the location of major rivers in North America.
Number: 
G13B
Number Historic: 
13
Series: 
Geography B
This chart shows the location of major rivers in Australia.
Number: 
G13C
Number Historic: 
13
Series: 
Geography B
This chart shows the location of major rivers in Europe.
Number: 
G14A
Number Historic: 
14
Series: 
Geography B
This chart shows the location of all rivers in North America.
Number: 
G14B
Number Historic: 
14
Series: 
Geography B
This chart shows the location of all rivers in Australia.
Number: 
G14C
Number Historic: 
14
Series: 
Geography B
This chart shows the location of all rivers in Europe.
Number: 
G15
Number Historic: 
15
Series: 
Geography B
This chart shows the location of the major rivers on earth.
Number: 
G16
Number Historic: 
16
Series: 
Geography B
This chart gives an impression of the tireless work of the river: to carve, carry and deposit sediment.
Number: 
G17
Number Historic: 
17
Series: 
Geography B
This chart shows how a V-shaped valley is formed when a river path continues to be carved and cut deepen and deeper into the land. As the riverbeds on either side continue to be eroded away, the higher parts of the land get further and further apart.
Number: 
G18
Number Historic: 
18
Series: 
Geography B
When a river flows through land that gets very little rain, it cuts straight down through the land forming a canyon. Since there is very little rain, the sides of the canyon do not erode into a V shape.
Number: 
G19
Number Historic: 
19
Series: 
Geography B
This chart supports a demonstration of erosion by water. The image depicts an earth pillar, which can be created when rain falls for millions of years onto a hard rock that lies on top of softer rock. The hard rock prevents the erosion of the softer rock underneath. The result may be an earth pillar that could be up to as tall as 30 or 40 meters high.
Number: 
G20
Number Historic: 
20
Series: 
Geography B
Water gets into cracks in rocks. When the temperature goes below freezing, the water in the rocks freezes. Water has a special quality in that it expands as it freezes. This increases the size of the cracks in the rocks. However, as long as the water remains frozen it holds the rocks together. The boy in the rock who seems to be sleeping represents the frozen water that is quietly holding the pieces of the rock together.
Number: 
G21
Number Historic: 
21
Series: 
Geography B
As the weather warms up, the ice melts and the pieces of rock breaking off and fall.
Number: 
G22
Number Historic: 
22
Series: 
Geography B
The glacier has slowly moved down the mountain pushing rocks and other debris along with it. The rocks and debris can be seen in front of the glacier as well as on the sides. This large glacier even has rocks and debris down the middle which comes from the joining of another glacier.
Number: 
G23
Number Historic: 
23
Series: 
Geography B
When the glacier melts, the rocks and debris at the front of the glacier form what is called a terminal moraine. The rocks and debris that are on the sides of the glacier form lateral moraines. The rocks and debris in the middle come from the joining of another glacier with the larger glacier. A hanging valley may be formed by a smaller glacier that had joined a larger glacier.
Number: 
G24
Number Historic: 
24
Series: 
Geography B
This chart depicts a U-shape valley caused as the result of the carving of the rocks or soil by a large glacier. Glaciers gouge out the land more deeply.
Number: 
G25
Number Historic: 
25
Series: 
Geography B
This chart represents the water cycle. Water evaporates from the ocean or lake, rises up and becomes clouds. As it cools it condenses and falls as rain. Some of that rain finds its way to a river that runs back to the lake or ocean. Once it reaches the ground it can continue its work of carving, carrying and depositing what it has carried away.
Number: 
G26
Number Historic: 
26
Series: 
Geography B
This chart gives another impression of the water cycle. The water in rivers flows down from highlands to lowlands and into a large body of water. That water is evaporated up, travels across the land in the form of clouds, and drops back into rivers as rain.
Number: 
G27A
Number Historic: 
27
Series: 
Geography B
This chart explores the variety of vegetation that grows in different parts of the world. The chart is used to make connections between the growth of certain types of vegetation and the access that these plants have to water to meet their needs.
Number: 
G27B
Number Historic: 
27
Series: 
Geography B
This chart explores the variety of vegetation that grows in different parts of the world. The chart is used to make connections between the growth of certain types of vegetation and the access that these plants have to water to meet their needs.
Number: 
G28
Number Historic: 
28
Series: 
Geography B
These charts explore how people in different regions of the world meet their needs in different ways according to the land, rainfall, climate, vegetation and animals available to them. Pieces of natural fabrics (such as cotton, silk, linen) may also be attached to this chart on the right.
Number: 
G29
Number Historic: 
29
Series: 
Geography B
These charts explore how people in different regions of the world meet their needs in different ways according to the land, rainfall, climate, vegetation and animals available to them. People, housing, flora and fauna of the Southern and Northern Temperate Zones are featured on this chart. On a small map of the world all of the land between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle and between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle are colored in red. Pieces of natural fabrics (such as leather, wool, cotton, etc.) may be attached to this chart.
Number: 
G30A
Number Historic: 
30
Series: 
Geography B
These charts explore how people in different regions of the world meet their needs in different ways according to the land, rainfall, climate, vegetation and animals available to them. Pieces of natural fabrics (such as fur, leather and wool) may be attached to this chart.
Number: 
G30B
Number Historic: 
30
Series: 
Geography B
These charts explore how people in different regions of the world meet their needs in different ways according to the land, rainfall, climate, vegetation and animals available to them. Pieces of natural fabrics (such as fur, leather and wool) may be attached to this chart.
Number: 
G31
Number Historic: 
U1
Series: 
Geography B
This chart gives further details of the composition of the earth. The core holds the heaviest substances of the earth, the mantle is the lighter part on top of the core and the crust is the part of the earth that has cooled.
Number: 
G32A
Number Historic: 
U2
Series: 
Geography B
This chart gives further details of the rocks that make up our earth’s crust. The chart supports a demonstration that shows the relationships between the granite, basalt and plastic mantle.
Number: 
G32B
Number Historic: 
U2
Series: 
Geography B
This chart gives further details of the rocks that make up our earth’s crust. The chart supports a demonstration that shows the relationships between the granite, basalt and plastic mantle.
Number: 
G33
Number Historic: 
U3
Series: 
Geography B
This chart supports a demonstration that shows how weight from the deposition of sediment is being added to the earth. Erosion from rivers and rain is helping to release this pressure. The mantle inside the earth is plastic and allows for a rise and fall of the crust. This is known as isostatic balance.
Number: 
G34A
Number Historic: 
U4
Series: 
Geography B
This chart depicts volcanic mountains, which are a conical shape, and fold mountains, which are caused by the movement of the earth’s tectonic plates.
Number: 
G34B
Number Historic: 
U4
Series: 
Geography B
This chart depicts volcanic mountains, which are a conical shape, and fold mountains, which are caused by the movement of the earth’s tectonic plates.
Number: 
G35
Number Historic: 
U5
Series: 
Geography B
This chart depicts rift valleys and block mountains. It shows how the strata, or layers of rock, no longer match up in these formations.

Geography W

Number: 
GW01A
Number Historic: 
GW1
Series: 
Geography W
The children use this chart to explore time zones. By placing the clock with the current time in their time zone, they can discover the time in other areas of the world.
Number: 
GW01B
Number Historic: 
GW1
Series: 
Geography W
The children use this chart to explore time zones. By placing the clock with the current time in their time zone, they can discover the time in other areas of the world.
Number: 
GW02A
Number Historic: 
GW2
Series: 
Geography W
This work chart allows children to work with the seasons, dates and temperature zones.
Number: 
GW02B
Number Historic: 
GW2
Series: 
Geography W
This work chart allows children to work with the seasons, dates and temperature zones.
Number: 
GW03A
Number Historic: 
GW3
Series: 
Geography W
This work chart allows children to further explore and consolidate the relationships between the seasons, dates, perpendicular rays of the sun and temperatures in the various locations on earth.
Number: 
GW03B
Number Historic: 
GW3
Series: 
Geography W
This work chart allows children to further explore and consolidate the relationships between the seasons, dates, perpendicular rays of the sun and temperatures in the various locations on earth. There are 10 coloured strips: 2 dark red (very hot), 2 medium red (hot), 1 pink (warm), 2 white (cold), 1 dark blue (very cold), 1 green (Spring), 1 brown (Autumn).
Number: 
GW03C
Number Historic: 
GW3
Series: 
Geography W
This work chart allows children to further explore and consolidate the relationships between the seasons, dates, perpendicular rays of the sun and temperatures in the various locations on earth. There are 10 coloured strips: 2 dark red (very hot), 2 medium red (hot), 1 pink (warm), 2 white (cold), 1 dark blue (very cold), 1 green (Spring), 1 brown (Autumn).
Number: 
GW04A
Number Historic: 
GW4
Series: 
Geography W
The children use this chart to link a particular place in the world (using the country’s latitude locations) with the temperature of that place at different times of the year.
Number: 
GW04B
Number Historic: 
GW4
Series: 
Geography W
The children use this chart to link a particular place in the world (using the country’s latitude locations) with the temperature of that place at different times of the year.
Number: 
GW04C
Number Historic: 
GW4
Series: 
Geography W
This chart comes in three parts, two moving parts which are affixed to the main chart through punch holes and using paper fasteners. The yellow colour represents the sun’s energy. The lines with arrows represent rays of the sun. The red ray represents the ray of the sun that strikes the earth perpendicularly. As the moveable piece is swivelled, this perpendicular ray “strikes” the earth between the two tropics (so to a maximum swivel of 23.5 degrees north and south.) The black “rectangle” to the right of the chart represents the shadow cast by the earth. The black cut out is mounted on the top of the chart, indicating the hemisphere of the earth that is facing away from the sun, and so in “night”.
Number: 
GW04D
Number Historic: 
GW4
Series: 
Geography W
This chart comes in three parts, two moving parts which are affixed to the main chart through punch holes and using paper fasteners. The yellow colour represents the sun’s energy. The lines with arrows represent rays of the sun. The red ray represents the ray of the sun that strikes the earth perpendicularly. As the moveable piece is swivelled, this perpendicular ray “strikes” the earth between the two tropics (so to a maximum swivel of 23.5 degrees north and south.) The black “rectangle” to the right of the chart represents the shadow cast by the earth. The black cut out is mounted on the top of the chart, indicating the hemisphere of the earth that is facing away from the sun, and so in “night”.
Number: 
GW05A
Number Historic: 
GW5
Series: 
Geography W
The chart is used to show the Work of Air (Winds) with the arrows placed on the chart as a small sun is moved between the tropics and the equator.
Number: 
GW05B
Number Historic: 
GW5
Series: 
Geography W
The chart is used to show the Work of Air (Winds) with the arrows placed on the chart as a small sun is moved between the tropics and the equator.

History

Number: 
H01
Number Historic: 
H1
Series: 
History
All human beings have fundamental needs regardless of their location and time in history. All humans have material needs and spiritual needs but they are able to meet these needs in many different ways.
Number: 
H02
Number Historic: 
H2
Series: 
History
This chart provides a more detailed analysis of the fundamental human need for food. The chart provides an overview of the various sources of food for human beings.
Number: 
H03
Number Historic: 
H3
Series: 
History
This chart gives an impression of the relative size of dinosaur compared to that of a human being.
Number: 
H04
Number Historic: 
H4
Series: 
History
This chart gives an impression of the relative size of dinosaur compared to that of a human being.
Number: 
H05A
Number Historic: 
H5
Series: 
History
The 12 hour clock gives a representation of the relative amounts of time it took for the Earth to undergo its various natural transformations.
Number: 
H05B
Number Historic: 
H5a
Series: 
History
The 12 hour clock gives a representation of the relative amounts of time it took for the Earth to undergo its various natural transformations.
Number: 
H05C
Number Historic: 
H5
Series: 
History
The 12 hour clock gives a representation of the relative amounts of time it took for the Earth to undergo its various natural transformations.
Number: 
H05D
Number Historic: 
H5a
Series: 
History
The 12 hour clock gives a representation of the relative amounts of time it took for the Earth to undergo its various natural transformations.
Number: 
H06
Number Historic: 
H6
Series: 
History
In this form of migration, a group of people clear the land to make way for agriculture. The people destroy the land as they clear it, and if the soil is found to be infertile, they migrate to a new area. Each time the group migrates; they clear and attempt to cultivate the new piece of land. The people may return to a previous location once the land in that area has been regenerated.
Number: 
H07
Number Historic: 
H7
Series: 
History
These images represent migration causing displacement. A group of people takes over the land of another group of people. This forces the first inhabitants out and caused them to then invade a different land. This forces these inhabitants out of their land, and the process continues resulting in the eventual displacement of a group of people.
Number: 
H08
Number Historic: 
H8
Series: 
History
The Horde migration involves smaller groups of people following and joining a larger, dominant group. The smaller groups completely merge with the larger group, creating a unified culture.
Number: 
H09
Number Historic: 
H9
Series: 
History
Infiltration and fusion involves a migration of different cultures onto the same land. The cultures live in harmony with one another and share some common ways of life, but they each have their own distinctions.
Number: 
H10
Number Historic: 
H10
Series: 
History
This chart represents the way a civilisation may protect itself and its way of life with a wall. The wall prevents invaders from entering.

Mathematics

Number: 
M01A
Number Historic: 
M1
Series: 
Mathematics
Images of various numerical systems used at different times in history and amongst different cultures are shown in the Great Story: The Story of Numbers. It shows a progression of how our numbers formed into the way we see them today.
Number: 
M01B
Number Historic: 
M1
Series: 
Mathematics
Images of various numerical systems used at different times in history and amongst different cultures are shown in the Great Story: The Story of Numbers. It shows a progression of how our numbers formed into the way we see them today.
Number: 
M02A
Number Historic: 
M2
Series: 
Mathematics
Images of various numerical systems used at different times in history and amongst different cultures are shown in the Great Story: The Story of Numbers. It shows a progression of how our numbers formed into the way we see them today.
Number: 
M02B
Number Historic: 
M2
Series: 
Mathematics
Images of various numerical systems used at different times in history and amongst different cultures are shown in the Great Story: The Story of Numbers. It shows a progression of how our numbers formed into the way we see them today.
Number: 
M03A
Number Historic: 
M3
Series: 
Mathematics
Images of various numerical systems used at different times in history and amongst different cultures are shown in the Great Story: The Story of Numbers. It shows a progression of how our numbers formed into the way we see them today.
Number: 
M03B
Number Historic: 
M3
Series: 
Mathematics
Images of various numerical systems used at different times in history and amongst different cultures are shown in the Great Story: The Story of Numbers. It shows a progression of how our numbers formed into the way we see them today.
Number: 
M04A
Number Historic: 
M4
Series: 
Mathematics
Images of various numerical systems used at different times in history and amongst different cultures are shown in the Great Story: The Story of Numbers. It shows a progression of how our numbers formed into the way we see them today.
Number: 
M04B
Number Historic: 
M4
Series: 
Mathematics
Images of various numerical systems used at different times in history and amongst different cultures are shown in the Great Story: The Story of Numbers. It shows a progression of how our numbers formed into the way we see them today.
Number: 
M05A
Number Historic: 
M5
Series: 
Mathematics
Images of various numerical systems used at different times in history and amongst different cultures are shown in the Great Story: The Story of Numbers. It shows a progression of how our numbers formed into the way we see them today.
Number: 
M05B
Number Historic: 
M5
Series: 
Mathematics
Images of various numerical systems used at different times in history and amongst different cultures are shown in the Great Story: The Story of Numbers. It shows a progression of how our numbers formed into the way we see them today.
Number: 
M06A
Number Historic: 
M6
Series: 
Mathematics
Images of various numerical systems used at different times in history and amongst different cultures are shown in the Great Story: The Story of Numbers. It shows a progression of how our numbers formed into the way we see them today.
Number: 
M06B
Number Historic: 
M6
Series: 
Mathematics
Images of various numerical systems used at different times in history and amongst different cultures are shown in the Great Story: The Story of Numbers. It shows a progression of how our numbers formed into the way we see them today.
Number: 
M07A
Number Historic: 
M7
Series: 
Mathematics
Images of various numerical systems used at different times in history and amongst different cultures are shown in the Great Story: The Story of Numbers. It shows a progression of how our numbers formed into the way we see them today.
Number: 
M07B
Number Historic: 
M7
Series: 
Mathematics
Images of various numerical systems used at different times in history and amongst different cultures are shown in the Great Story: The Story of Numbers. It shows a progression of how our numbers formed into the way we see them today.
Number: 
M08A
Number Historic: 
M8
Series: 
Mathematics
Images of various numerical systems used at different times in history and amongst different cultures are shown in the Great Story: The Story of Numbers. It shows a progression of how our numbers formed into the way we see them today.
Number: 
M08B
Number Historic: 
M8
Series: 
Mathematics
Images of various numerical systems used at different times in history and amongst different cultures are shown in the Great Story: The Story of Numbers. It shows a progression of how our numbers formed into the way we see them today.